Author ORCID Identifier

Cristo Leon:

James Lipuma:



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Roleplay has critically influenced academic dialogue on education, psychology, and narrative. However, little research has been conducted around "gaming sessions," specifically the "point of contact" amongst participants, due to its ephemeral qualities and the subjective nature of the co-creative process. Acknowledging the complexity of the subject, the authors established a clear set of definitions. They conducted a literature review to examine the existing understanding of critical components related to gameplay in Tabletop Roleplay Games (TRPGs). They are exploring TRPGs through the lens of narrative storytelling to understand better and categorize the 'collaborative' and 'co-designed interactions during the gameplay experience. The paper discusses the three interconnected ideas of meta-action, metacognition, and metagaming concerning the effective co-creation process and its impact on how participants collectively create and explore fantasy worlds in an imaginary cosmos by using a vast system of concepts, rules, and mechanisms that function as the background or canvas for action and interaction amongst them. As Language, Communication, and Education occupy a central role in the gaming experience, miscommunication and assumptions will lead to a break in immersion. Metagaming is commonly labeled as the "worst" that can happen in a gaming session. The problem is that it is also commonly confused with meta-action and metacognition, which are essential to the game. This article aims to provide the tools to all players that will allow them to enjoy a more engaging in-game experience, based on the idea that the more players manage metagaming properly, the better the game experience will be for all participants involved. The main focus is defining essential discourse clearly and clarifying the line between in-game and extra-game narration, description, and action. The authors will start conceptualizing the situation by defining general terms. A systematic review of the literature (SRL) integrated into the three phases, planning, management, and reporting the results, will be presented in the following sections. An analysis of the concepts of' Gaming and extra gaming' followed by brief 'Examples at the point of contact' and conversations around 'Action and Meta-actions' will serve as a reference to discuss the metacognition and metagaming concepts. Finally, the authors will present their conclusions and a glossary of terms.

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Metacognition, Metagaming, Meta-action, Storytelling, Tabletop Roleplay Games (TRPGs), Lifelong Learning, SDG4 Education, Educational Gaming, Game-Based Learning.


Arts and Humanities | Education



The authors thank Cynthia Shafer and Sandy Chang for their unconditional support.

As well as to Diego Téllez Bueno, Esteban Martínez Rojo, José Ernesto Malpica Rosendo, and Oscar Toriz Nava thank you for your dedicated support as a consultant for this article. Finally, we would like to thank the Red de Investigadores de Juegos de Rol for encouraging this conversation.

Disclosure statement
No conflict of interest pertains to the research presented above.

Analyzing the Meta Dimensions in TRPGs: Meta-Action, Metacognition, and Metagaming