Document Type


Date of Award

Spring 5-31-2011

Degree Name

Master of Science in Pharmaceutical Engineering - (M.S.)


Chemical, Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering

First Advisor

Laurent Simon

Second Advisor

Piero M. Armenante

Third Advisor

Norman W. Loney

Fourth Advisor

Bozena B. Michniak


This study focused on the effects of iontophoresis and chemical enhancers on drug release. The transport of Lidocaine HCl (LHCl) and Nicotine Hydrogen Tartrate (NHT) through the skin and mucosa was evaluated for potential clinical applications. These two potential delivery routes have the advantage of avoiding first-pass effect. Samples were pretreated with enhancer solutions for one hour before the experiments. Passive or 0.3 mA iontophoresis-assisted drug diffusion was conducted for 8 hours to monitor the cumulative amount of drug released. Graphical methods and mathematical optimization techniques were implemented to analyze the data. The effects of chemical enhancers on the delivery rate depend largely on the drug used while iontophoresis mainly increases the steady-state flux. Parametric analyses show that a balance between high flux and fast release should be considered when conducting formulation and optimization studies.