Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering - (Ph.D.)
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Michael Blair Porter
Moe Z. Win
Gerardus Johannes Maria Janssen
Current wireline systems and wireless broadcasting systems employ multicarrier modulation (MCM). This includes the high-rate digital subscriber line (HDSL), digital audio broadcasting system (DAB) and the digital terrestrial television broadcasting system (dTTb). Multicarrier modulation is also envisioned for high-speed indoor wireless local area networks (WLAN). Additionally, multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA), a hybrid of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and CDMA, is proposed for the downlink (base-to-mobile) of a 3rd generation wireless system as part of the IMT-2000 standardization process.
The performance of an MC-CDMA system--similar to a direct sequence CDMA (DS-CDMA) system--is limited by the presence of multiple access interference (MAI) . Downlink communications also suffers from MAI as a result of the multipath channel effect, even if it implements orthogonal code multiplexing. Additionally, transmissions aimed at different mobile users may be assigned different powers in order to increase the system capacity, essentially creating a near-far problem for some users.
Due to the MC-CDMA signal structure the conventional decorrelator (based on the inverse of the correlation matrix) is dependent on the channel coefficients, suggesting the use of an adaptive multiuser detector, which can track a time-variant channel. The performance of a blind adaptive multiuser detector for MC-CDMA, based on the "bootstrap algorithm," is investigated and compared to the performance of the conventional decorrelator. Additionally, the performance is investigated for different channel conditions. First, for a non-faded flat additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Second, for a frequency selective channel with and without correlation between the channel coefficients at the different subcarriers.
In general, the mobile terminal suffers from limited available resources such as computing power or battery life and, therefore, cannot accommodate the same level of receiver complexity as the base station. For the downlink, however, the received signal structure is less complex due to the assumed synchronized transmission. Moreover, the mobile receiver is merely required to detect the desired user's data stream. To reduce the complexity, detectors are proposed that do not require knowledge of the active users nor their respective codes, but rather use a combined code to represent all the interfering users at once. The performance of the reduced complexity conventional decorrelator is compared to the performance of an adaptive reduced complexity detector using the bootstrap algorithm. The performance of these detectors is also investigated for the aforementioned channel types.
For spectral-efficiency, closely spaced subcarriers are used in a multicarrier modulated system. A resulting drawback is a high sensitivity of the performance to a frequency offset. This results from a Doppler shift, due to mobile movement, as well as from a mismatch between the carrier frequencies at the transmitter and receiver. To mitigate this problem an adaptive decorrelator based frequency offset correction scheme is developed for OFDM and its performance is investigated. Additionally, a blind frequency offset estimation and correction structure is proposed based on a stochastic gradient method. The convergence and statistical properties of this estimator are investigated.
A blind adaptive joint multiuser detection and frequency offset correction structure for downlink MC-CDMA is developed. This detector is a combination of the structures for multiuser detection for MC-CDMA and frequency offset correction for OFDM. Moreover, the performance of this detector is investigated and compared to a joint detector based on a minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion.
Visser, Matthijs A., "Adaptive interference cancelation techniques for multicarrier modulated systems" (1999). Dissertations. 965.