Date of Award

Spring 2004

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering - (Ph.D.)


Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Alexander Haimovich

Second Advisor

Ali Abdi

Third Advisor

Yeheskel Bar-Ness

Fourth Advisor

Alexander Haimovich

Fifth Advisor

Roy R. You


Transmit diversity is a key technique to combat fading with multiple transmit antennae for next-generation wireless communication systems. Space-time block code (STBC) is a main component of this technique. This dissertation consists of four parts: the first three discuss performance evaluation of STBCs in various circumstances, the fourth outlines a novel differential scheme with full transmit diversity.

In the first part, closed-form expressions for the bit error rate (BER) are derived for STBC based on Alamouti's scheme and utilizing M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) modulation. The analysis is carried out for a slow, flat Rayleigh fading channel with coherent detection and with non-coherent differential encoding/decoding. The BER expression for coherent detection is exact. But for differential detection it is an approximation appropriate for a high signal-to-noise ratio. Numerical results are provided for analysis and simulations for BPSK and QPSK modulations.

A signal-to-noise ratio loss of approximately 3 dB always occurs with conventional differential detection for STBC compared to coherent detection. In the second part of this dissertation, a multiple-symbol differential detection (MSDD) technique is proposed for MPSK STBCs, which greatly reduces this performance loss by extending the observation interval for decoding. The technique uses maximum likelihood block sequence detection instead of traditional block-by-block detection and is carried out on the slow, flat Rayleigh fading channel. A generalized decision metric for an observation interval of N blocks is derived. It is shown that for a moderate number of blocks, MSDD provides more than 1.0 dB performance improvement corresponding to conventional differential detection. In addition, a closed-form pairwise error probability for differential BPSI( STBC is derived for an observation interval of N blocks, and an approximate BER is obtained to evaluate the performance.

In the third part, the BER performance of STBC over a spatio-temporal correlated channel with coherent and noncoherent detection is illustrated, where a general space-time correlation model is utilized. The simulation results demonstrate that spatial correlation negatively effects the performance of the STBC scheme with differential detection but temporal correlation positively impacts it. However, with coherent detection, spatial correlation still has negative effect on the performance but temporal correlation has no impact on it.

In the final part of this dissertation, a differential detection scheme for DS/CDMA MIMO link is presented. The transmission provides for full transmit and receive diversity gain using a simple detection scheme, which is a natural extension of differential detection combined with an orthogonal transmit diversity (OTD) approach. A capacity analysis for this scheme is illustrated.