Date of Award

Fall 2003

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering - (Ph.D.)

Department

Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Atam P. Dhawan

Second Advisor

Nirwan Ansari

Third Advisor

Timothy Nam Chang

Fourth Advisor

John Francis Federici

Fifth Advisor

Stanley S. Reisman

Abstract

Nevoscope as a diagnostic tool for melanoma was evaluated using a white light source with promising results. Information about the lesion depth and its structure will further improve the sensitivity and specificity of melanoma diagnosis. Wavelength-dependent variable penetration power of monochromatic light in the trans-illumination imaging using the Nevoscope can be used to obtain this information. Optimal selection of wavelengths for multi-spectral imaging requires light-tissue interaction modeling. For this, three-dimensional wavelength dependent voxel-based models of skin lesions with different depths are proposed. A Monte Carlo simulation algorithm (MCSVL) is developed in MATLAB and the tissue models are simulated using the Nevoscope optical geometry. 350-700nm optical wavelengths with an interval of 5nm are used in the study. A correlation analysis between the lesion depth and the diffuse reflectance is then used to obtain wavelengths that will produce diffuse reflectance suitable for imaging and give information related to the nevus depth and structure. Using the selected wavelengths, multi-spectral trans-illumination images of the skin lesions are collected and analyzed.

An adaptive wavelet transform based tree-structure classification method (ADWAT) is proposed to classify epi-illuminance images of the skin lesions obtained using a white light source into melanoma and dysplastic nevus images classes. In this method, tree-structure models of melanoma and dysplastic nevus are developed and semantically compared with the tree-structure of the unknown image for classification. Development of the tree-structure is dependent on threshold selections obtained from a statistical analysis of the feature set. This makes the classification method adaptive. The true positive value obtained for this classifier is 90% with a false positive of 10%. The Extended ADWAT method and Fuzzy Membership Functions method using combined features from the epi-illuminance and multi-spectral images further improve the sensitivity and specificity of melanoma diagnosis. The combined feature set with the Extended-ADWAT method gives a true positive of 93.33% with a false positive of 8.88%. The Gaussian Membership Functions give a true positive of 100% with a false positive of 17.77% while the Bell Membership Functions give a true positive of 100% with a false positive of 4.44%.

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