Date of Award

Spring 2012

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical Engineering - (Ph.D.)


Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

MengChu Zhou

Second Advisor

John D. Carpinelli

Third Advisor

Edwin Hou

Fourth Advisor

Zhiming Ji

Fifth Advisor

Yun Q. Shi


Since cardiovascular diseases are major causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries and the number one cause of death in the United States, their accurate diagnosis and effective treatment via advanced cardiac pacemaker systems have become very important. Intelligent control and optimization of the pacemakers are significant research subjects. Serious but infrequently occurring arrhythmias are difficult to diagnose. The use of electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform only cannot exactly distinguish between deadly abnormalities and temporary arrhythmias. Thus, this work develops a new method based on frequency entrainment to analyze pole-zero characteristics of the phase error between abnormal ECG and entrained Yanagihara, Noma, and Irisawa (YNI)-response. The thresholds of poles and zeros to diagnose deadly bradycardia and tachycardia are derived, respectively, for the first time. For bradycardia under different states, a fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (FPID) controller for dual- sensor cardiac pacemaker systems is designed. It can automatically control the heart rate to accurately track a desired preset profile. Through comparing with the conventional algorithm, FPID provides a more suitable control strategy for offering better adaptation of the heart rate, in order to fulfill the patient's physiological needs. This novel control method improves the robustness and performance of a pacemaker system significantly.

Higher delivered energy for stimulation may cause higher energy consumption in pacemakers and accelerated battery depletion. Hence, this work designs an optimal single-pulse stimulus to treat sudden cardiac arrest, while minimizing the pulse amplitude and releasing stimulus pain. Moreover, it derives the minimum pulse amplitude for successful entrainment. The simulation results confirm that the optimal single-pulse is effective to induce rapid response of sudden cardiac arrest for heartbeat recovery, while a significant reduction in the delivered energy is achieved. The study will be helpful for not only better diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases but also improving the performance of pacemaker systems.