Document Type


Date of Award

Fall 1-31-2011

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Applied Physics - (Ph.D.)


Federated Physics Department

First Advisor

N. M. Ravindra

Second Advisor

Michael R. Booty

Third Advisor

Anthony Fiory

Fourth Advisor

Martin Schaden

Fifth Advisor

Vitaly A. Shneidman


The Magnetic Field Driven Simultaneous Assembly (MFDSA) is a method that offers a non-statistical and deterministic solution to the problem of assembly via batch processing; a hybrid of serial and parallel processing. The technique requires the use of electromagnets as well as soft and hard magnetic materials that are applied to devices and recesses respectively. The MFDSA approach offers the ability to check and correct errors in real-time and is capable of scalable, versatile, and high-yield integration.

Devices, coated with a layer of soft magnetic material, are moved from initial to final positions along predetermined pathways through the action of an array of electromagnets. Various devices, of arbitrary geometries, with different physical and functional properties, are manipulated simultaneously toward specific desired locations and then dropped onto a template under the influence of gravity by weakening the local applied field. Locations on the template correspond to sites on a substrate that contain recesses. When a number of devices have been dropped onto the template, a substrate is pressed onto it and the soft magnetic layers on the devices adhere to the hard magnetic strips in the recesses, completing integration in a single step.

The objectives of this dissertation are the following: to present the MFDSA method; comparing and contrasting it with other extant techniques employed by the semiconductor industry; to discuss key aspects of this solution with respect to the problem of assembly, and to model the calculations involved with determining both device pathways and field interactions that are required to implement the approach. The Fourier Series technique will be used to describe the force of attraction between the device's soft magnetic layer and the recess's hard magnetic strips. Methodology from finite element analysis will be employed to calculate the force exerted on a device by an array of electromagnets. The Swarm Algorithm, which was developed in this work to calculate device pathways, will be presented as a stable, well-defined solution.

Other concepts, such as the magnetic retention factor and the collision crosssection area, will be presented and developed. The solution to the problem of assembly, via the Swarm Algorithm, will be compared and contrasted with other analogous problems found in the literature. The results of these models, including software implementation, will be presented.

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