Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Biomedical Engineering - (Ph.D.)


Biomedical Engineering

First Advisor

Xiaobo Li

Second Advisor

Tara L. Alvarez

Third Advisor

Bharat Biswal

Fourth Advisor

Yiyan Liu

Fifth Advisor

Kevin Pang


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in children. Symptoms of childhood ADHD persist into adulthood in around 65% of patients, which elevates the risk for a number of adverse outcomes, resulting in substantial individual and societal burden. A neurodevelopmental double dissociation model is proposed based on existing studies in which the early onset of childhood ADHD is suggested to associate with dysfunctional subcortical structures that remain static throughout the lifetime; while diminution of symptoms over development could link to optimal development of prefrontal cortex. Current existing studies only assess basic measures including regional brain activation and connectivity, which have limited capacity to characterize the functional brain as a high performance parallel information processing system, the field lacks systems-level investigations of the structural and functional patterns that significantly contribute to the symptom remission and persistence in adults with childhood ADHD. Furthermore, traditional statistical methods estimate group differences only within a voxel or region of interest (ROI) at a time without having the capacity to explore how ROIs interact in linear and/or non-linear ways, as they quickly become overburdened when attempting to combine predictors and their interactions from high-dimensional imaging data set.